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Best Practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. 2008/2009.

Introduction

The National Woolgrowers Association of South Africa adopted a resolution during the 2007 congress requesting the development of a Code of Best Practice to benchmark quality raw wool production standards against international criteria. Social responsibilities supporting this are addressed. The Best Practice Reference Manual (BPRM) for wool sheep farming provides a framework of best practice concepts for wool sheep farming in South Africa. The main objective is to ensure sustainable farming practices that incorporate animal welfare, environmental conservation, social acceptability and optimum production with reference to the appropriate legislation that apply to wool sheep producers...

Institutions: Cape Wools; The National Woolgrowers Association of South Africa; Agri SA; Provincial Department of Agriculture (Elsenburg) A manual for self assessment for the wool industry 7; National Department of Agriculture; The National Cleaner Production Center of South Africa; The Livestock Health and Production Group of the South African Veterinary Association; Cape Nature; African Large Predator Research Unit [ALPRU]; Woolworths; Industry Workshop Task Team (2006); NSPCA (Preventing cruelty to all Animals); Bioiversity and Wine & Green Choice

Full PDF document.

Dairy Cows and Shade. Department of Agriculture, Western Cape. 

Introduction

At the beginning of another summer, it can only be speculated at the amount of milk (and money) that will be lost by dairy farmers because of heat stress. Heat stress occurs when the environmental temperature rises above the comfort zone of dairy cows because of solar radiation. This is aggravated by high ambient relative humidity levels. Dairy cows experience heat stress whenever the environmental temperature exceeds 24 °C. The negative effect of heat stress increases the longer this period of high temperature lasts.

Full PDF document.

 

Direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle. Du Toit et al. (2013).

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of South African dairy and beef cattle in total and per province using the Tier 2 methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), but adapted for tropical production systems...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

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Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the game industry in South Africa. Du Toit et al. (2013).

Abstract

Previous greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories did not include game as an emissions source. Recently game farming has become a recognized commercial enterprise in the agricultural sector in South Africa, contributing approximately R10 billion to the sectorial gross domestic product. The objective of this study was to estimate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from privately owned game animals based on international recognized methodologies...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science

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Direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions of monogastric livestock in South Africa. Du Toit et al. (2013).

Abstract

There are increasing concerns about the impact of agriculture and livestock production on the environment. In this the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from South African pigs, ostriches, horses, donkeys, mules and poultry were calculated, using 2010 production data on a provincial basis. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology adapted to tropical production systems was used to calculate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

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Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the South African small stock sectors. Du Toit et al. (2013).

Abstract

There are increasing concerns about the impact of agriculture and livestock production on the environment. As a result, it is important to have accurate estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if reduction measures are to be established. In this study the direct GHG emissions from South African sheep and goats during 2010 were calculated. Calculations were done per province and in total. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology, adapted for tropical production systems, was used to calculate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions on a Tier 2 level...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

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The effect of production system and management practices on the environmental impact, quality and safety of milk and dairy products. Erasmus, L.J. & Webb, E.C. (2013).

Abstract

There is an increasing trend to label milk and dairy products according to production system, absence of certain feed additives and non-use of specific technologies. These claims include the practice of organic farming, the absence of ionophore antibiotics and recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST) free milk. Absence-claim labels may imply to some consumers that certain milk is safer and more nutritious than other milk. Milk from r-bST supplemented cows is completely safe for human consumption, since bST is a protein, which is digested like other animal and plant proteins, it is species specific, and most bST in milk is denaturated by pasteurization...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

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The effect of production system and management practices on the quality of meat products from ruminant livestock. Erasmus, L.J. & Webb, E.C. (2013).

Abstract

Demands for products of animal origin are increasing worldwide owing to the significant growth in the human population and changes in the health, wealth and life expectancy of people. The agricultural sector has the scientific knowledge, expertise and technology to respond to these challenges, but consumers are concerned about the methods used to meet these new challenges. They are also concerned about the environmental impact of modern technologies and intensification of production systems...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

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The impact of climate change on the South African Beef Cattle Industry. Scholtz, M.M. (2014).

A presentation done by Prof Michiel Scholtz at a Animal Change Workshop on Livestock and Climate Change held at the University of Pretoria. 

Full presentation. 

 

Grazing and Burning Guidelines: Managing Grasslands for Biodiversity and Livestock Production. SANBI 2014.

The Grazing and Burning Guidelines have been collated from the knowledge and expertise of many grassland ecologists, farmers, academics and biodiversity and grazing specialists.

Partner institutions: DAFF, LandCare, ARC, Enzemvello KZN Wildlife, Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Agency, WWF, Conservation South Africa, RPO, Birdlife South Africa, Endangered Wildlife Trust, Grassland Society of South Africa

Complete document.

 

 

Long Term Biodiversity Management for the South African Ostrich Industry. Ostrich Business Chambers 2009.

This document aims to provide a pro-active road map for the industry to ensure that ostrich farmers in the Klein Karoo safeguard the unique biodiversity of the Klein Karoo, whilst. maintaining a sustainable production system...

Partners: Critical Ecosystems; SKEP; LandCare; Cape Nature, WWF; TMF;CAPE; Green Choice; Eden Municipality

Full PDF document.

 

Measuring enteric methane emissions from lacing Jersey cows in a pasture-based system. Department of Agriculture, Western Cape.

Problem identification

Greenhouse gasses (GHG) have a detrimental effect on the ozone layer, therefore enhancing the effects of solar and thermal radiation on atmospheric and surface temperatures. This leads to climate changes and global warming (increased risk for drought, fire and floods, more heat-related diseases and melting of ice caps), as a result. The sustainability of current farming enterprises is questioned. Methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and halocarbons are GHG. Methane is a potent GHG with 29 times the greenhouse potential (over 100 years) of CO2 and is cheaper to mitigate than CO2 (IPCC, 2014). Recently South African livestock producers have come under increasing pressure over the environmental impact of production systems. 

Full PDF document. 

 

Practical Soil Erosion Control and Veld Rehabilitation in the Little Karoo - Prepared for Landowners and Managers by the Biodiversity Project of the Ostrich Industry Business Chamber. Coetzee, K. & Stroebel, W. 2011.

Introduction

This booklet is a small part of the efforts of the Biodiversity Unit of the South African Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC) to improve the state of biodiversity in the lands farmed with ostriches in the Little Karoo. In this booklet, the methods that were experimentally used in 2009 to rehabilitate some of the degraded parts of ostrich farmland in the Oudtshoorn district, are described in detail and some of the good results achieved are shown...

Booklet (PDF).

Afrikaans.

 

Predators on Livestock Farms: A Practical Farmers' Manual for Non-lethal, Holistic, Ecologically Acceptable and Ethical Management. Landmark Foundation 2008.

This manual is intended to be a practical guide to farmers who live with predators on their rangelands, and who are seeking Non-lethal, Holistic, Ecologically Acceptable and Ethical Management Strategies to deal with predator–livestock farming conflicts. The focus of the manual is on the production of meat and animal fibre products that are wildlife– and, particularly, predator–friendly, thus assisting in the conservation of predation as a biodiversity process. It does not address all issues around animal husbandry, nor damage – causing animals in other forms of agricultural production, nor does it focus on the game farming industry. This publication will serve as the manual and guide to farmers of veld – reared meat and animal fibre products to qualify for certification to the wildlife– friendly brand of products that is being planned, and will allow the farmer to profit from conservation–friendly land uses...

Authors: Smuts, B.

Full PDF document. 

 

A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to greenhouse gases and water usage. Scholtz e al. (2013).

Abstract

The general perception that livestock is a major contributor to global warming resulted mainly from the FAO publication, Livestock’s Long Shadow, in 2006, which indicated that livestock is responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This figure has since been proved to be an overestimation, since it includes deforestation and other indirect contributions. The most recent figure is in the order of 5% - 10%. Although only ruminants can convert the world’s high-fibre vegetation into highquality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on questionable assumptions and the perception that all sources of food production require a similar and equal quantity and quality of water...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

Full PDF document. 

 

Species Conservation Project. Landmark Foundation.

The project’s focus is on conserving leopards in the Cape by establishing a leopard rescue, rehabilitation, release and research program. In addition to this program, they have commenced with the establishment of a wildlife friendly brand Fair Game™. By making leopards their program’s focus, other species from antelope and plants are automatically conserved.

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Sustainable Mohair Industry Production Guidelines: Pre-Farm Gate.

Introduction

Mohair production in South Africa is largely extensive in nature, with many production landscapes being rich in plant and wildlife. As a result the Mohair industry has considerable potential as custodians or stewards of these landscapes, both in terms of the agricultural resource (vegetation, soil and water) as well as biodiversity assets. The Mohair producers have expressed the need for a production and market integrated approach that differentiates the Mohair industry as a sustainable, biodiversityfriendly, clean and ethically compliant industry. This is in line with changing national and international markets where sustainability is increasingly a requirement for market access...

Authors: de Beer, E.F

Organizations: Sustainable Mohair Production; SA Mohair Growers Association; Mohair South Africa; Green Choice

Full PDF document.

 

Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 Part 1: Worth and impact of the sector. Meissner, H.H.; Palmer, A.R. & Scholtz, M.M. (2013).

Abstract

Livestock production in South Africa contributes substantially to food security. It is also a topic of public debate because of lack of knowledge and wrong information. This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces with high concentrations in the eastern higher rainfall regions...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences

Full PDF document. 

 

Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis on developing countries. Scholtz et al. (2013).

Abstract

Global warming is predicted to have a profound effect on livestock production in developing countries. An improved understanding of the adaptation of livestock to such changing production environments is thus important, but the measurement of adaptation is complex and difficult. Proxy-indicators for adaptation, such as reproductive and production traits, however, can be used. Livestock industries have a responsibility to reduce the release of greenhouse gases (i.e. the carbon footprint) and water use (i.e. the water footprint). An effective way of decreasing the carbon and water footprints from livestock is to reduce livestock numbers and increase the production per animal. Increased production generates less greenhouse gas emissions per unit of livestock product...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences.

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Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 Part 2: Challenges, changes and required implementation. Engelbrecht, F.A.; Meissner, H.H. & Scholtz, M.M. (2013).

Abstract

Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and management considerations required to maintain sustainability are discussed. Major challenges are associated with climate change and the environmental impact of the sector. Southern Africa is predicted to become drier and the average temperature may rise by 1.5 ºC to 2 ºC. Livestock CH4 emissions are 1330 Gg/year, with enteric fermentation contributing 95%. For commercial production of beef and milk, CH4 estimates are at the upper half of life cycle assessments of 14 - 32 kg CO2 e/kg beef and 0.84 - 1.4 kg CO2 e/kg milk recorded for developed countries. The water footprint depends on production system and efficiency. Global and South African water use estimates for red meat production vary from 80 to 540 L/kg meat. In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, suggesting scope for improvement...

Publisher: South African Society for Animal Sciences.

Full PDF document. 

 

Tread lightly Ostrich Project. OBC.

The Tread Lightly project is aimed at raising awareness among ostrich producers of the impact that their farming has on the environment, whether it is on the natural environment, the farm itself, feedlots or camps. In other words, striving for being fully sustainable...

Partners: National Lottery; Cape Nature; Western Cape Government; SKEP

Full PDF document.

Afrikaans.